在ADA之前, Americans with disabilities had been excluded from society … and generally barred from social p艺术icipation by lack of accessibility and stigma.”
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
In 1975, 在美国，公立学校只招收了五分之一的残疾儿童. 许多州的法律明确将残疾儿童排除在公立学校之外. Professor Thomas Hehir reflects on the current state of disabilities education as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of IDEA.
HEHIR1975年，我在弗雷明汉的基夫技术学校教书，那是一所地区性的声乐技术学校. I was a special education teacher. I was teaching kids with disabilities. 马萨诸塞州，我有一个全面的特殊教育法. A few years before the Federal law. So, 联邦法律所做的很多事情在马萨诸塞州已经在做了, 哪一号, 最重要的是将教育扩展到所有残疾儿童. In 1975 I was working in a regional voc-tech school that was integrating kids with disabilities into the mainstream. 那时我还在一个青少年教育机构工作, 有残疾的青少年生活在国家机构里, 让这些孩子准备好回到他们的社区. 因为其中一件事, IDEA最重要的成就之一是推广教育, 特别是那些有智力障碍的学生, or what was then referred to as mental retardation. And here in Massachusetts which was the case virtually everywhere there were State institutions in which large numbers of those children were housed at that time. 估计是400个,000名儿童和成年人，其中大部分是智障人士, 许多人有身体残疾，比如脑瘫. 一些有心理健康问题的人在美国被送进了精神病院, most of them were kept in deplorable condition. 很少有孩子真正得到今天澳门星际官方网所说的教育. So, I was working with kids in the community who had similar disabilities like Down’s syndrome and who were doing pretty well because they were being educated in the community. Some communities in Massachusetts you know, 总是教育每个人都, but then going to the institution you know, after school and seeing kids who couldn’t read, 有同样残疾的人不能说话因为他们被关押的环境. 所以，我认为IDEA最大的成就之一就是为所有的孩子提供教育. And nationally they estimated that between 800,000到100万的孩子被完全排除在学校之外，这非常, 这在当时很常见.
面试官所以马萨诸塞州有点超前了, but at the time in 1975 this was a big deal for the country and a little bit of history lesson about how this legislation came about, 它是如何被推行的，在40年里又发生了什么变化, celebrating its 40th anniversary this year.
HEHIR:是啊. 从我的角度来看，我想其他澳门星际网站也会同意, 基本上有两件事同时发生. 一个, you’ll be pleased to know Matt, 媒体人, 是因为媒体吗, 是因为这些机构被曝光了吗. Most notably an expose done by Geraldo Rivera of Willowbrook which was the largest institution in the country and which was located in Staten Island. 他带着摄像机溜了进去，曝光了那里糟糕的环境. 这是对年轻听众来说媒体的一个有趣的看法. Back then there were only really three networks and if you were covered by one of them you were covered by three of them at the 6:00 nightly news, 这每个人都看. 所以，人们有一种共同的媒体体验. 因此，这些曝光开始被媒体报道. And the average American didn’t know these places existed and found it quite disgusting that the government was subjecting people to conditions that were you know, 恶劣和危险. 所以，你知道，这是一种政治流，谈论政策. 但, also at the same time you know, given the time this was you know, 在越南时期，在对现有权力结构存在许多质疑的时期. 有一些诉讼是由公众利益发起的, 法律组织, 一些倡导组织正在挑战学校对孩子的排斥, 根据第14修正案. That basically saying that the exclusion, 这个论点, 法律论证, which by the way hadn’t really prevailed up to this time because the 14th Amendment was around for a long time in 1975. 但, 在60年代末70年代初这些诉讼开始有利于原告所以他们会, there was a big one in Pennsylvania called PARK, where the state of Pennsylvania agreed to enter into consent agreement rather than go to court around the exclusion of children again, 在宾夕法尼亚州的智障人士. 有一个大州，哥伦比亚特区也有类似的诉讼. So, these suits were moving through the courts and so, 国会有兴趣把这个问题作为一个全国性的问题. 在IDEA通过之前发生的另一件事就是504节的通过, 前两年. Section 504 is Section 504 the Rehabilitation Act and it was through a simple reauthorization of that piece of legislation that advocates were successful in putting in just one clause in that, in that law which was that basically that any entity that received federal funds that discriminated against people with disabilities, 这是违法的. 所以, 这意义深远, 这是一部影响深远的法律，它很大程度上模仿了民权运动, the 64 Civil Rights Statute and so forth. Which basically meant that school districts that didn’t enroll kids with disabilities were in violation of Section 504. So the section 504 that passed, there were these lawsuits going on, there was this media attention, 但是你知道, 有必要向各学区提供援助，使其能够满足, now what was becoming a legal obligation, which was to educate all kids. 所以, IDEA first and foremost was a funding belt. 你知道 Section 504 just told you had to do it. It didn’t give you any money. IDEA提供了州政府的资金，但有很多附加条件. 我的意思是，你必须独立，你必须找到孩子. You had to do what was called child find. You had to do individualized education. 你必须赋予父母在孩子安置问题上的重要权利. 这是一部影响深远的法律，但它完全取决于各州是否接受这笔钱. 绝大多数州立即开始接受货币. 他们中的一些人花了长达10年的时间才获得IDEA的资金.
面试官: Tom is it a success 40 years later? Are you happy with the results? 我知道没有什么事情是在所有方面都是完美的, 但是你总体上满意吗?还有什么地方可以更好呢? 它在哪里可以改进?
HEHIR从我的角度来看，我认为这是一个合格的成功. 我认为把教育扩展到所有的孩子是绝对成功的. 我的意思是，孩子接受教育比不接受教育要好. 但是，我认为仍然有一些问题需要解决. I think there’s still a lot of segregation of kids with disabilities that is unnecessary and contrary to what research would say would be the best practices for those kids. I think many school districts, there are kids who get identified as needing special education that really could have gotten other approaches in general education that would have been far more effective. 对于低收入家庭的孩子和有色人种的孩子来说尤其如此. 所以，你知道，我认为这是一个合格的成功. 我觉得有些地方还没有接受, 他们还没有接受澳门星际官方网包容的法律价值观, 为孩子们提供他们成功所需要的东西，从这个角度来看，我认为, 我认为澳门星际官方网可能需要做一些事情来提高它.
面试官: Tom, always a pleasure talking to you. 你总是世界上最擅长谈论这些问题的人之一. 你也出了一本书. I’d be remised if I didn’t ask you about that.
HEHIR:是啊. 好吧, 我有几本书, 但是那个, my most recent book is about students with disabilities here at Harvard and when I first came to teach here in 2000, after worked in the Clinton administration, 我开始在我的课堂上看到有残疾的学生. 当我还是这里的学生的时候，残疾的学生并不多，这对我来说很重要, 这是一件很棒的事，因为我一生的工作就是, 我开始问学生, you know I wanted to hear their stories. 你知道, 如果你一个字都没听过，还能写出漂亮的英语，你是怎么进澳门星际网站的, and your first language is American Sign Language. 如果你因为脑瘫或看不见而不能说话，你要怎么去澳门星际网站? 或者，你无法学习阅读，因为你有诵读困难症. I wanted to know their stories because again, 当你想到进入澳门星际网站这样的学校必须达到的水平时, 在你的教育中，很多事情都是正确的，我想说的是在你的家庭中. 所以, 这本书的原型是我班上的16个学生他们都有各种各样的残疾. 残疾在一年级或二年级时就很明显了. They’re not disabilities on the margins, they’re students who you know, 我提到的那些聋哑人或者不识字的学生. 书中有两名学生曾试图自杀, had pretty significant mental health issues, 因此,, so basically the book is about you know what, 你知道如果故事，对于大多数人来说IDEA是故事的一部分.
面试官: Undoubtedly benefited by this legislation. Here we are celebrating 40 years of it today. Tom thank you for being on the EdCast.
面试官: This has been the Harvard EdCast Production, 澳门星际网站教育研究生院，我是主持人马特·韦伯. Thank you kindly for listening.
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